D.II.01 Regulations for the Chess Olympiad

1. General

The Chess Olympiad is the principal team contest organized by FIDE.

The Olympiad is held regularly at two year intervals in the autumn of the even numbered years (2006, 2008, etc.)

The Olympiad for both the open section and the women section must be held, if possible, at a single venue.

However, in exceptional cases as determined by the FIDE General Assembly or (in between congresses) by the President - separate venues may be used for the men and women contests.

Organizing body: FIDE, represented by the FIDE President.

The administrator is appointed through a special selection process (section 2 below).
The administrator is responsible to FIDE, and must abide by these regulations.
The administrator shall make available all necessary premises, staff and funds for the contest. The minimum requirements are laid down in individual sections of these regulations.
The administrator may utilize the services of outside bodies or private persons for the purpose of financing and running the contest.
Administrators may be proposed by the federations.
The President may also receive offers from sponsors outside the sphere of FIDE.
The tasks of the administrator are detailed in subsequent sections of these regulations.

FIDE Congress

The administrator who undertakes the running of the Chess Olympiad must also undertake to hold the FIDE Congress for the same year.

Exceptions may be made by the General Assembly or the President (compare 1.13 above).

FIDE and the Organizing Committee shall appoint
• officers, and/or
• specialist sub-committees to control the play and conduct the administrative business of the Olympiad, as specified in further detail in the organization plans (D.II.07 Annexes A, B and C).

The national teams of federations affiliated to FIDE.
Open: 4 players, 1 reserve
Women: 4 players, 1 reserve

Each team shall have a captain, who may also be one of the players (or reserve).

• Leadership of the team matches
• Liaison with the Chief Arbiter
Chiefs of delegations

The federations take full responsibility for the conduct of their players. Each federation may be represented by a Chief of delegation; it may either appoint a person exclusively to this office, or entrust the team captain, or one of the players or reserves, with this function.

• Administrative supervision of the team
• Liaison with the organizing authorities and Tournament Director.

2. Procedure for selection of Organizer for the Chess Olympiad and FIDE Congress

FIDE shall open its bidding procedure no later than five years before the event is scheduled to commence.

All bids must be submitted on the prescribed bidding form and submitted to the FIDE Secretariat.

Upon receipt of the bidding form, Presidential Board shall assign two officials to inspect the relevant facilities.

The candidate organizer shall be required to fill up a Memorandum of Understanding (published on the FIDE website when the bidding is opened). The MOU shall be signed by the candidate organizer, sealed and sent by registered mail to the FIDE Secretariat within four weeks of the departure of the inspectors.

The inspectors shall submit a joint evaluation report to the Presidential Board signed by both the inspectors.

Four years before the scheduled Olympiad, the General Assembly shall made its final decision as well as to rank the three candidate organizers in order of the number of votes received by each candidate organizer.

Three months after being awarded the Olympiad, the candidate organizer and FIDE shall sign a contract covering all aspects pertaining to the overall organization of the Olympiad and FIDE Congress.

If the candidate organizer is unable to sign the contract within three months as stipulated in item 8 above, then the Presidential Board shall offer the privilege to the candidate organizer ranked second stipulated in item 7 above. The procedure stipulated in Item 8 above is repeated.

If none of the first two candidate organizers are able to sign the contract, then the Presidential Board shall reopen the bidding procedure which shall be completed by the following FIDE Congress.


3. Period of preparation for the Chess Olympiad

After the appointment of an administrator, the preparatory period begins.

Draft submitted to the FIDE President

Not later than six months before the start of the tournament, the federation entrusted with the organization must deliver to the FIDE Secretariat a draft of the invitation to the tournament, which shall contain full information on the following:

(a) venue;
(b) dates for the start and finish of the Chess Olympiad, and application deadlines;
(c) material arrangements for the participating teams;
(d) travel facilities, conditions for the visas, etc.

At the same time as this draft is submitted, the President or his representatives must be invited

• to inspect the venue, and
• to conduct a preliminary discussion at the administrators expense.


Immediately afterwards, the draft invitation shall receive the Presidents confirmation, with (if appropriate) a note of any modification which he considers desirable on the basis of his inspection of the venue and the preliminary discussion. If necessary, further inspection may be arranged.

Organizing Committee

On receiving the Presidents confirmation (3.3), the federation of the administrator shall form an organizing committee, the duties of which are laid down in section 4.

Invitation to the Federations

Not later than five months before the start of the Olympiad, the organizing federation shall send the invitation in its final form to all federations affiliated to FIDE. Copies of the invitation are to be forwarded to the members of the Executive Board and the Zone Presidents.

Notice of participation

Not later than four months before the start of the tournament, every federation that intends to participate must inform the organizing federation of its acceptance of the invitation. Copies of the letter of acceptance should at the same time be sent to the FIDE General Secretary and the President of the federations Zone. The Administrator is not allowed to let federations, which did not fulfil this demand, participate in the Olympiad (PB `98)

At the same time, the federation concerned must pay FIDE the requisite entry fee, failing which the federation shall not be allowed to participate in the Olympiad (PB `98)

Submission of team lists

Not later than two (PB '98) months before the start of the tournament, every Federation that has entered must notify the following details to the Administrator:

(a) name and initials of the Chief of Delegation;
(b) name and initials of the team captain;
(c) name of each team member (one first name in full, initials of additional first names, surname);
(d) FIDE rating of team members (according to the most recent FIDE rating list);
(e) any information required in connection with visas.

Late notification of team particulars shall be accepted up to 20 hours before the start of Round 1 (PB '98), but subject to a late submission fee of 100 euros per name.

The ranking of teams shall be finalized 16 hours before the start of the first round.


4. Organization of the Chess Olympiad by the Administrator

Organizing Committee

The Chess Olympiad shall be held in accordance with the FIDE organization scheme laid out in D.II.07, annexes A, B and C.

The federation entrusted with the organization shall, in consultation with the administrator, appoint a chairman for the organizing committee.

The chairman of the organizing committee shall assign personnel to the committees sub-departments, except in so far as this falls within the competence of FIDE.

Each sub-department shall be assigned a manager; the chairman is free to decide on any further administrative divisions that he considers necessary.

A tournament physician must be at the disposal of the participants for the duration of the contest.

A list of the staff in the organizational sub-departments must be supplied to the FIDE Secretariat and to the organizing federation. Addresses, telephone numbers, email and telefax numbers (where applicable) should be included.

After the organizing committee is constituted, further arrangements for the Chess Olympiad shall follow guidelines laid down by the FIDE President.

In addition to this, the administrator shall take responsibility for informing his federation of points which he considers to be important.


Combined financial accounts are to be kept; all ascertainable income and expenditure must be itemized for inspection.

The FIDE President shall be kept informed of the financial aspects of the Olympiad.

Income accruing from the Chess Olympiad through admission charges, concessions, sale of equipment, etc., shall go to the administrator.

The television rights (including video and film rights) and the internet rights belong to the administrator who shall pay 20% of the revenue to FIDE.

FIDE shall be reimbursed for the expenses it incurs in direct connection with the contest and its preparation, according to the agreement between FIDE and the organizer.

Provision of amenities and stipends

The form of amenities provided for members of the organizing committee, and the extent of compensation paid to them in the absence of work shall be at the discretion of a panel consisting of the following committee members:

• chairman
• manager of the sub-department for finance
• representative of the organizing federation.

To the FIDE principals (see 4.3.3), the administrator shall pay stipends and provide amenities as detailed in the following paragraphs. Any intended changes in the level of stipends and pocket money shall be submitted by the President to the General Assembly for approval.

The FIDE principals are:

• the President,
• the Chief Arbiter,
• the two Deputy Chief Arbiters and six Sector Arbiters,
• the four members of the Technical Administration Panel, and
• the three members of the Appeals Committee.
The functions of these principals are laid down in section 6: Parties to the Chess Olympiad.
The stipend shall be SFr.6,000 for the President, SFr.5,000 for the Chief Arbiter and SFr.3,000 for each of the other principals.
Any of the principals who are active at the Olympiad for only part of the time shall only receive a pro rata portion of the stipend.
For the services of the FIDE General Secretary, a fee of 3,000 SFr. shall be paid.
The administrator is responsible only for such amenities as are actually utilized by any of the principals during the period of the contest and in the course of activity directly connected with it, the tournament venue or in transit.
The administrator shall be host to the principals for the entire duration of the contest.

Provision for the principals

The President is entitled to first class travel by air, sea or rail.

For all other principals, provisions shall be made for return travel by air, sea or rail, or, at their own option, by other means of transport which shall not, however, be more costly to the administrator than air travel.

All travel arrangements shall be made by the administrator. Principals who wish to make their own arrangements shall do so entirely at their own risk.

For the President: a suite in a hotel of his choice.

For each of the other principals: a double room with bath/WC.

If possible, all principals should be accommodated in the same hotel. If more than one hotel is used, accommodation of equal quality should be aimed at.
Food and drink

Free choice of items on the restaurant menu in the hotel and at the tournament site; free use of hotel room service.

On payment of a daily allowance for food, the best possible conditions should be ensured for dining in several good restaurants; the allowance should be paid every 10 days.

In the matter of food and drink, all principals are to be treated equally.
Pocket money

30 Swiss Francs per day, in local currency. The account shall be settled with the administrator jointly at regular intervals, through a representative of the principals.
Transport in the tournament locality

For the President: a chauffeur-driven car.

For the other principals: a pool of cars shall be provided, the use of which shall depend on the location of the hotels, tournament hall and media centre, and on the leisure requirements of the principals. Where appropriate, journeys should be made jointly, by arrangement with the administrator.
Leisure facilities

General access, without lengthy waiting periods, to a variety of sport and recreation facilities such as swimming, tennis, bowling and riding; also to libraries, museums, concerts, theatres, etc.
Medical care

- Consultation by the tournament physician, any medical services he prescribes

- The administrator shall meet the cost of treating acute illnesses including the cost of medicines, but not chronic ailments.

The provision of amenities for persons accompanying the principals shall be settled between the President and the administrator.

Provision for the Arbiters

The organiser will invite at least 65 foreign arbiters who will receive 1000 euros each (if from the same continent) or 1500 euros each (if not from the same continenent). This amount includes their air travel expenses. This list of invited foreign arbiters will be nominated by the FIDE President.

The administrator shall provide the foreign Match Arbiters with accommodation and meals as well as 600 Euro to cover their travelling expenses and pocket money.

Provision for teams

Each individual federation shall pay the travelling expenses of its team, and also the living expenses of its Chief of Delegation if he is not one of the persons mentioned in 4.5.2.

All federations except CACDEC members shall pay a minimum of USD 25 per day for each official member of the team as mentioned in Criteria shall be established for deciding those federations (that may not include only CACDEC members) to be considered for exemption.

The Administrator shall provide all teams with double rooms, unless the composition of players + captain is an odd number (PB `98).

The quality of accommodation and meals shall match the standards and importance of the Chess Olympiad.

The administrator shall, in addition, provide all prizes (team, individual and special).

Furnishing of the playing hall(s)

The administrator is responsible for the furnishing and upkeep of the playing hall and its environs.

The FIDE flag and the national flags of the participating federations are to be flown from the playing hall.

The hall is to be divided into the playing area and a spectator area. The playing area of the tournament hall must total a minimum of 10.000 m2 (ten thousand square meters) without taking into consideration additional facilities such as relaxation areas, congress/exhibition venues, etc. During the event, the tournament hall should be used only for chess and cannot be used for any other activity other than FIDE's. The maximum distance of the tournament hall to any or all hotel(s) of the participants must not exceed 4 km (four kilometers).

Acoustics, decoration, ventilation, heating or air-conditioning, and lighting must conform to the highest modern standards. The carpeting should eliminate distracting noise. Tables, chairs, chess boards, pieces and clocks should be chosen according to FIDE specifications.

The spectator area must be clearly separated from the playing area, but the spectators must have the opportunity to follow the matches directly.

The players must not, however, be disturbed by spectators. The Chief Arbiter shall decide what constitutes a disturbance. If necessary, those causing it shall be expelled from the hall.

The administrator shall appoint staff with clearly visible insignia to supervise the hall.

Relaying of the games on video equipment or demonstration boards (with or without commentaries) may only take place inside of rooms of the playing hall. The equipment, management and staffing of these rooms are responsibility of the administrator.

Media facilities

The administrator shall make every conceivable effort to attract the worlds finest reporters and to enable them to convey the best possible presentation of these matches to those who cannot attend as spectator.

The administrator shall ensure an efficient media service for writers, photographers, national and international news agencies, and the electronic media.

The administrator shall appoint an information officer to supervise these activities, and shall set up a media centre (press centre).

The media centre should be:

• near the playing hall, with easy access to parking;
• large enough to contain all necessary professional equipment (and internet facilities), as well as leisure and refreshment facilities for journalists;
• under strict supervision to exclude anyone not in possession of a valid pass issued by the administrator;
• open for a period before the contest (as determined by the administrator), and for one day after the end of the contest; and
• manned by properly qualified personnel.

Facilities in the media centre

Working Stations: Sufficient tables and chairs (if possible, not more than two people to a table); typewriters with various keyboards; paper, and other general stationery; copying machines.

Information area: Clearly marked notice boards for news and results service; a public address system to inform journalists of calls or messages.

Means of communication: Telephones in booths or with soundproof canopies; telefax machines with accessories, with self-service or operation by staff; monitors.

The refreshment bar or restaurant and lavatories should be in the immediate vicinity.

Guidelines for co-operation with journalists

All persons wishing to operate in the media centre must receive official credentials.

Every journalist (in the wide sense) shall be issued with a pass. This must incorporate a firmly attached photograph, and must be worn prominently on all media premises.

The passes shall give access to the playing hall, the media centre and the restaurant(s) for the players and press.

Accommodation for journalists

The administrator shall assist journalists with hotel reservations. He shall recommend suitable accommodation at favourable prices, or endeavour to make it available. The journalists should preferably be accommodated in a single hotel or in adjacent hotels.

Information supplied to journalists should include: addresses, telephone or telefax numbers, location of hotels and prices.


All possible methods of payment for the use of facilities, specially in the media centre, should be permitted (credit cards, cash, telephone calls with reversed charges, telex cards).

Press conferences

For these, special rooms should be made available. Notice of all press conferences by the President or by players, as well as any special announcements by the administrator, should be conveyed to the journalists in good time. Similarly, all Principals should be informed.

Conduct of interviews

General interviews with participants in the Chess Olympiad may be conducted by direct arrangement with those concerned.

Conduct in the playing hall

On entering the playing hall, media personnel are treated as spectators. They are subject to the regulations applying to spectators, except in so far as their work as media personnel necessarily requires exceptions. The taking of photographs in the playing hall is restricted to officially recognized reporters with the administrators express permission. This permission shall only be valid for the first 10 minutes after the start of any round.

Film or television cameras and recording instruments may be brought into the press lobby or spectator are, installed and operated, only by special permission of the administrator.

Specific measures at the start of the Olympiad or shortly before it

Inspection of the site and preliminary discussion with the Chief Arbiter

Not later than 4 days before the start of the Chess Olympiad, the administrator shall invite the Chief Arbiter to oversee final preparations.

The matters discussed should include the plan for instruction, deploying and supervising the Regular Arbiters and their assistants.

The travelling and accommodation expenses for its discussion shall be paid by the administrator.

Notification of the precise schedule to the federations:

Not later than 6 weeks before the start of the Olympiad, if not before, all participating federations must possess the following information.

Date and time of: the opening ceremony, the start of the first round, the end of the final round and the closing ceremony.

• Note: these particulars are of great importance to the travelling teams. Only precise information from the administrator enables the chess federations to make the correct bookings for air, sea or rail travel in good time.

The administrators hospitality to teams shall commence with the evening meal and nights accommodation on the day before the opening ceremony.

Any extra arrangements, and provision for their cost (e.g. in case of missed airway connection, etc.), must be agreed in advance with the administrator.

The FIDE principals must be present 3 days before the opening ceremony. The services provided to them by the administrator shall begin from that time.


Federations shall ensure that team captains and Chiefs of Delegations possess copies of the Olympiad regulations and the FIDE laws. The administrator shall supply the participants in the Olympiad with folders of literature giving points of information and interest.


The administrator shall send written invitations to the FIDE principals 6 weeks before the opening. Copies of these invitations shall go to the FIDE General Secretary.

Inspection of the venue, and concluding discussion

Two days before the opening ceremony, in the morning, the chief organizers shall inspect the tournament venue.

Immediately after this inspection, a discussion of the results shall take place among the same group of people. Any wishes relating to other matters may also be voiced at this point.

A written report on the results of the discussion shall be made by the administrator, and copies of it shall be distributed to all who participated.

Before the first round of the tournament, the administrator shall ensure that action is taken on the matters arising from discussion. If necessary, a further inspection may be arranged.


The administrator shall provide conspicuous passes for players and organizers.

Care of players

The administrator and his colleagues shall give every assistance in looking after the players, both immediately after their arrival and during the tournament itself.

The administrator shall make effort to provide the players with the best possible quality of accommodation, food, drink, transport and playing conditions.

Opening Ceremony

The Chess Olympiad begins officially with the opening ceremony.

All players and organizers shall be invited to take part in this ceremony.

The program of events and the list of speakers are to be agreed between the FIDE President and the chairman of the organizing committee.

The building or hall where the ceremony is held shall be decorated with the FIDE flag and the flag of the host country.

At the start of the ceremony, the national anthem of the host country and the FIDE anthem shall be played.

Parties to the Chess Olympiad


The FIDE President represents the interests of FIDE and is empowered to take the final decision on all questions relating to the Olympiad as a whole.

Organizational spheres of competence.

The chairman of the organizing committee represents the interest of the administrator. He shall appoint the managers of the administrative sub-departments and establish contacts with official bodies, associations and sponsors. He shall be the highest authority in the organizational process, specially in the financial sphere.

The Tournament Director shall be appointed by the chairman of the organizing committee.

He is competent for all matters of organization inside the tournament hall. His tasks are indicated by the organization plan in Annex B, and by the specific tournament regulations.

The organization plan is to be treated as a guide. Alterations or additions to it, demanded by local and technical conditions, may if necessary be undertaken with agreement of the organizing committee. For the performance of his tasks, the organizing committee shall assign to the Tournament Director two Deputy Tournament Directors, as well as any other management personnel and assistants who may be considered necessary.

The plan for the organizational framework in its final form, as determined by the organizing committee, shall be distributed before the start of the tournament to all FIDE principals, chiefs of delegations and team captains.

The Tournament Director shall maintain close contacts with the Chief Arbiter, and shall be responsible for the availability of Match Arbiters for the playing sessions.

The layout of the tournament hall shall be decided by agreement with the Chief Arbiter.

The information officer is wholly an agent of the organizing committee. He shall be appointed by the committee chairman.

He shall be supplied with competition results and news by the Tournament Director, and with the daily pairing list by the Technical Administration Panel.

The information officer in his own capacity shall decide how to utilize and publicize this information.

He shall be responsible for the management of the media centre.

Spheres of competence in controlling the play

The play shall be controlled by:

• the Chief Arbiter and the two Deputy Chief Arbiters
• 6 Sector Arbiters;
• the Match Arbiters.

The Chief Arbiter shall be in charge of the controlling team in the Chess Olympiad.

He must be an International Arbiter. After consultation with the chairman of the organizing committee, the President shall propose the Chief Arbiter to the General Assembly for approval.

The two Deputy Chief Arbiters and six Sector Arbiters who must all have the International Arbiter title and must all belong to different federations, shall assist the Chief Arbiter; they shall be appointed by the FIDE President. The Sector Arbiters are to oversee and coordinate the work of the Match Arbiters.

The Match Arbiters shall be assigned duties by the Chief Arbiter and supervised by the Deputy Chief and Sector Arbiters.

The general responsibility of all Arbiters is the trouble-free conduct of the playing sessions in the Chess Olympiad. The Arbiters shall ensure overall compliance with the Laws of Chess and the supplementary regulations. They are expected to insist that participants observe a high standard of chess etiquette and refrain from disturbing or harassing their opponents (e.g. by repeating draw offers or by crowding around any board). In doubtful cases the Chief Arbiter shall decide what constitutes a disturbance and shall act accordingly. Any personnel required to implement his decision shall be provided by the Tournament Director.

The Match Arbiters shall support the Sector Arbiters, and shall have the following tasks:

• to ensure that the playing equipment is in order and is set up ready for the start of each game;
• to check that the players are correctly seated, facing the right opponents;
• to make sure that the clocks are set correctly for the start of play;
• to see that the starting of clocks at the beginning of the session proceeds according to the tournament regulations for the Chess Olympiad;
• to check that the clocks are going correctly during the game;
• to ensure that enough Match are on hand to watch the clocks at the time control, if several players are in time trouble at once;
• to ascertain whether the requisite number of moves have been made upon expiry of the allocated time;
• to give assistance as far as possible, if players express any wishes during the game;
• to prevent any unnecessary conversation in the course of play.

Infringements of the regulations are to be reported to the Regular Arbiters. For every match, the Match Arbiters must draw up a results sheet featuring the number of the round, the countries involved, list of the players in board order, and the results of finished games. This results sheet (or where necessary a partial results list) must be handed to the Chief Arbiter immediately after the end of the round.

The Technical Administration Panel (TAP)

The Technical Administration Panel (TAP) shall consist of a chairman and 3 other members, each from a different FIDE federation. The FIDE President shall appoint the chairman and two other members for a period of four years after consulting the chairman of FIDE Technical Commission. The fourth member shall be the representative of the organizing federation. If necessary, additional a programmer can be included to take care of the software and to adjust the software according to the local requirements or to internet transmission.
Members of the Technical Administration Panel (TAP)

All the members of the Technical Administration Panel (TAP) shall be experienced in the field of electronic data processing and have to assure a backup function as each member shall be able to take over the work of any other member in case of technical or personal failure. Although the pairings shall be calculated with the help of a computer program, all the members of the Technical Administration Panel (TAP) must be able to check and/or produce the pairings manually.
General task description

In principle the Chief Arbiter has to approve any output of the Technical Administration Panel (TAP), but may delegate the responsibility for certain tasks to a member of the panel.

Technical Administration Panel (TAP) shall be responsible for processing of the data of

- players
- teams
- general team composition (fixed board order)
- individual pairings
- pairings ( team and individual)
- results (team and individual)
- title results
- evaluation of team/individual ranking and awards
- rating report.

The Technical Administration Panel (TAP) has to

- establish and check the list of “Fixed Board Order”
- produce team pairings of each round
- receive team compositions for each round and establish the list of individual pairings and the “Matchreports”
- evaluate the matchreports for keeping the team’s and individual scores
- save the matchreports
- prepare result lists for teams and individuals
- prepare the ranking lists for bulletin, press and internet
- deliver all necessary data to press officer and to internet administrator.
Technical equipment

The technical equipment of Technical Administration Panel (TAP) shall consist of:

- a lockable room to be used as office for the panel
- telephone to be used for local calls only
- internet access in the office with minimum two connections
- two computers provided by the local organizer
- a computer program checked and accepted by FIDE Technical Commission and officially endorsed by FIDE for this task
- black/white laser printer, including refills of toner
- a copy machine, including refills of toner
- sufficient paper for printer and copy machine
- local mobile phones for all members, provided by the organiser; the capability of these mobile phones shall be limited to local calls (prepaid mobile phones).
Necessary input from the organiser to the Technical Administration Panel (TAP)

1. Information about all arriving teams

The organiser has to collect all the necessary information about arriving teams and names of team members and to forward the information to the Technical Administration Panel (TAP) as soon as possible, latest at midnight of the day before the first round.

These information are:

- name of the team captain
- name of all players arrived
- fixed board order, if available.

Teams arriving so late that the deadline is missed, may not be paired correctly for the first round. They may be paired against each other and will be paired correctly for the second round.

Teams arriving after start of the first round will be paired for the round following the day of arrival.

2. Information about the “Fixed Board Order” of the teams.

If not given upon arrival the captains have the possibility to present the “Fixed Board Order” at the captain’s meeting in the morning of the day of round one directly to the Technical Administration Panel (TAP).

3. Information about the team composition of each team at each round

Technical Administration Panel (TAP) will provide all participating teams with forms to deliver the team composition for each round.

(a) The team composition for the first round has to be given directly to the Technical Administration Panel (TAP) at the time specified by the Chief Arbiter for delivering.

(b) The team composition for the following rounds has to be given to an arbiter at the time and the place specified by the Chief Arbiter for delivering.

(c) The local organiser has to collect the team compositions from the arbiters and to deliver these papers to the Technical Administration Panel (TAP).
Output of the Technical Administration Panel (TAP)

- teams and team compositions
- team pairings
- individual pairings
- match report forms
- team results and individual results
- ranking of the teams
- medal winners and winners of board prizes
- statistics about the tournament
- norm reports for the players.

(a) All information are prepared as soon as the relevant data are available for the Technical Administration Panel (TAP)
(b) In principle the Chief Arbiter of the Olympiad is responsible for delivering of any information data. He may give this responsibility to one or more of the members of Technical Administration Panel (TAP).
(c) The local organiser has to fulfil the tasks of the press officer and the internet administrator. It must be clear that the official data about the tournament are prepared by the Technical Administration Panel (TAP). Therefore it must be avoided to distribute data of different content.

The team of the local organiser

The local organiser has to set up a team capable to fulfil the task described in art. 1.4 to provide the proper information for the Technical Administration Panel (TAP). Planning to set up this team has to take in consideration many local conditions, as

- situation of the lodging venues for players and arbiters
- local traffic situation
- status of available local information facilities
- availability of supporting manpower.

Therefore details of the local organisation cannot be described in advance independently from these influences. It is up to the organiser to prepare in cooperation with the Chief Arbiter an organisation which fulfils the described requirements as much as possible.

However, the planned organisation shall be checked and approved by the Chief Arbiter of the Olympiad and FIDE Technical Commission in due time before start of the Olympiad.

The teams are the open and women national teams for federations affiliated to FIDE. Eligibility to participate is covered under the FIDE Eligibility Regulations.
Every team participating in the Chess Olympiad must declare in advance that it is willing to play against teams from any other affiliated federations. The only possible exception would arise in the case of war. The Assembly accepted a proposal of the President that if any match could not be played owing to a state of war, its result would be decided on the basis of probabilities deduced from the players` FIDE ratings.
Every participating team is in principle under obligation to play in the tournament from start to finish. If a team is, however, compelled to withdraw from the tournament through circumstances beyond its control, the treatment of any unplayed matches for the purpose of scoring shall be settled by the FIDE President, the Tournament Director and the Chief Arbiter.

Any further measures shall be taken later by the President in consultation with the Executive Board.
Every team shall be headed by a captain (in matters relating to the play) and a chief of delegation (in administrative matters).

The administrator shall incur no expenses for any chief of delegation who is not of the persons listed under 4.5.2.

Before the start of the contest, each participating federation shall send the administrator two miniature flags of its nationality, suitable to be placed on the tables.

Every chief of delegation must come equipped with a tape recording of his country` national anthem.
Fixed Board Order (FBO)

See D.II.07, paragraphs 1.172 - 1.174 and 3.7. Not later than 20 hours before the start of round 1, the players in each team must be listed in a fixed board order by their captain. The FBO cannot be changed during the tournament.
During the whole course of the contest, the players must conduct themselves in accordance with sporting fairness and decency, and must take care neither to distract nor to annoy their opponents. They should endeavour to settle all disputes by mutual accommodation. Prior agreement between players as to the result of individual games or of a match shall be penalized with the utmost severity. If any such agreement is proved to have taken place, the points apportioned by it shall be annulled and the matter shall be referred to the appeals committee for the fixing of the penalty.

The team captains
Before the start of a round, the captain of a team must deliver to the Chief Arbiter, a sealed envelope containing a Round Team List (RTL) of the team members who are to take part in the round in question. If this list is not delivered by the appointed time, the team may only use its top 4 players. In the exercise of his functions the team captain has the right of access to the area reserved for the players, but it is his duty to ensure that the members of his team who are not involved in the current match or have finished their games do not enter or remain in this area. At the end of the playing session, the captain is responsible both for reporting the result to the controllers and for delivering to them legibly written scoresheets of the finished games. During the games the captain must refrain from interfering in any way. He is, however, entitled to advise his players on the offering or accepting of draws or resigning of games, provided that he makes no comment on the actual position on the chess board, and confines himself to giving brief information which can in no way be construed as an opinion about the progress of the game. The exchange of information between captain and player must take place in the presence of a controller. The captain is permitted to appoint a deputy to exercise his functions, but must inform the Chief Arbiter of this in writing. In matters relating directly to the play, the captain alone is entitled to lodge or present demands made by his players.

Special committees

In the Chief Arbiters initial discussion with the captains, the latter shall elect an Advisory Panel.

This panel shall be composed of 5 persons, as follows:

• the members may be team captains or players;
• they should be chosen from all 5 rating categories (see 7.73);
• the 5 members shall nominate their own chairman.

The task of the advisory panel is to give advice to the Chief Arbiter and Tournament Director whenever they request it. Equally, the appeals committee or the FIDE President may take advice from the panel before arriving at a decision.

Request for this advice should be addressed to the chairman of the panel.

Procedure in the case of infringement of the rules, disputes and improper conduct.
In matters relating to the play:

• the initial decision shall be taken by the Arbiters
• an appeal against this decision may be addressed to the Chief Arbiter.
• the second, provisionally binding decision, shall be taken by the Chief Arbiter.
In administrative matters

• the initial decision shall be taken by the Deputy Tournament Director.
• an appeal against this decision may be addressed to the Tournament Director.
• the second, provisionally binding decision shall be taken by the Tournament Director.
General Stipulation

Any ruling by the Chief Arbiter or Tournament Director shall take effect immediately; any proceedings which were suspended shall then be resumed.
Written Protests

Against a decision of the Chief Arbiter or Tournament Director are permissible and shall be settled by an appeals committee.

The Appeals Committee

The FIDE President, as the highest executive officer of the Chess Olympiad, shall have the support of an appeals committee, of which he himself shall select the three members.

The President shall appoint one of members as chairman.

The following may be the subject of rulings by the appeals committee:

• protests against decisions of the Chief Arbiter or Tournament Director;
• complaints of improper conduct by participants in the Chess Olympiad;
• any other matters which the committee considers important and worth debating.

Procedure of appeals

Any protest against a decision by the Chief Arbiter or the Tournament Director must be typed and presented to the appeals committee in triplicate, together with the sum of 100 Swiss Francs or the equivalent in local currency, as a deposit from the signatory. If the appeal is granted, the sum shall be returned immediately.

Those entitled to lodge appeals are the team captains and the chiefs of delegation. Where appropriate, the appeal may be accompanied by written statements from the witnesses.

The deposit must be handed to the chairman of the appeals committee. If the appeal is refused, the deposit if forfeited to FIDE. Requests to the appeals committee by organizers of the Chess Olympiad may be made without payment.

Upon submission of the appeal, the committee shall proceed to examine the evidence. For this purpose it may take statements from anyone as required, consult members of the advisory panel, and conduct other forms of investigation. The decision of the appeals committee should be reached as quickly as possible.

The appeals committee should endeavour to find acceptable solutions in the FIDE spirit. It may resolve disputed issues with or without disciplinary action.

In the case of gross unsporting offenses or other misconduct, the following principles apply:

• The Laws of Chess provide for the penalization of players who break the rules; 
• the FIDE interpretations of the laws state that "Arbiters are requested to impose, in cases where clear contravention of moral principles of the game are demonstrated, penalties as severe as the loss of the game";
• if a participant fails to comply with the Laws of Chess or the relevant regulations, disobeys the controllers, commits breaches of chess etiquette or conducts himself improperly inside or outside the tournament building, the following steps may be taken.

Code of penalties

For minor offences or petty infringements
• admonishment
• correction
• demand for an apology to the offended party.

If a participant fails to make the apology demanded of him, which must be presented to the offended party in writing, the appeals committee shall instead impose a fine, the amount of which shall have been stipulated in a postscript to the original verdict.

For serious offences
• written warning
• fine
• conditional or definitive disqualification.

The appeals committee shall decide whether an offence is "serious" or "minor". All fines are to be remitted to FIDE through the administrator, who should be notified by the committee.

The federations shall take responsibility for their players.

Right of veto and commutation

All rulings by the appeals committee are subject to the Presidents right to veto. Application for the veto to be exercised must be submitted to the President in writing not later than 24 hours after the appeals committee has communicated its verdict. An application submitted late shall be invalid. The President may confirm the committees decision, quash it or reduce the penalties imposed.


The attempt is made in these regulations to draw a clear line of demarcation between the sphere of competence of the Chief Arbiter and that of the Tournament Director.

Notwithstanding this attempt, there will repeatedly be borderline cases, an overlapping of functions, and questions of prerogative. In such cases the Tournament Director and the Chief Arbiter should endeavour to resolve the question between themselves. If this proves impossible, the question of competence shall be decided by the appeals committee. In the process of its development, the Chess Olympiad is in constant need of new impulses, it is continually changing. To ascertain the tendencies during the Chess Olympiad and determine the correct modes of cooperation between all parties, one member of the appeals committee shall be appointed as

Tournament regulations for the Chess Olympiad

Laws of Chess

The general FIDE laws shall be applied with their supplements and interpretations as laid down by the FIDE Rules Commission. The following specific regulations for the Chess Olympiad shall also be in force.

System of Play

The contest shall take the form of a Swiss system tournament with fixed rules for pairings. The pairing procedure and its rules are set out in detail under D.II.02.


The matches shall be conducted according to a playing schedule which must be distributed to the participants before the start of the tournament. The time span between the opening and closing ceremonies shall not exceed 14 days. Only in exceptional cases may the Chief Arbiter, in consultation with the Tournament Director, make alterations to the times of play. If this is done, all those concerned are to be informed directly (not merely by a notice on a notice-board).

Start of the session

Five minutes before play commences, the Tournament Director must announce the approaching start of the session by a double acoustic signal. The playing session shall start by the announcement of the Chief Arbiter.  Once the Chief Arbiter announces the start of the round, the clock of the player with the white pieces shall be started by his opponent.

At the start of the round the players shall be seated in their places, in front of the chessboard, according to their team composition. Any player who will not be in his/her place at the start of the round will be forfeited, thus losing his/her game. So the Zero Tolerance Rule shall be in effect.

Playing Conditions

Only the players, principals and people with permission of the Chief Arbiter shall be allowed in the actual playing area.

During the playing session the following additional regulations shall be in force:

a) The players and captains are not permitted to bring into the playing area technical and other equipment extraneous to play, including mobile phones, which may in any way disturb players.
b) A player may talk only to an arbiter, or communicate with his captain, or with his opponent, as permitted by the Laws of Chess.
c) The players are not allowed to leave the playing venue without the permission of the Chief Arbiter.
d) When standing close to the chessboards, captains and players should be behind the players of their team, not facing them


During the whole course of the contest, the players must conduct themselves in accordance with sporting fairness and decency and must take care neither to distract nor to trouble their opponents. They should endeavor to settle all disputes by mutual accommodation.

Prior agreement between players or captains as to the result of games or of a match will be penalized with the utmost severity. If any such agreement is proved to have taken place, the points apportioned by it will be forfeited, and the matter will be referred to the appeals committee for the fixing of the penalty.

Draw restrictions

The players are not allowed to offer a draw to their opponent before thirty (30) moves have been completed by both players.

A game is drawn according to the Articles 5.2.a, 5.2.b and 9.6 of the Laws of Chess.

A game may be drawn according to the Articles 5.2.d, 5.2.e, 9.2 and 9.3 of the Laws of Chess. In the case of a threefold repetition and the rule of fifty moves, the player has to claim to the Arbiter, as per article 9.2 of the Laws of Chess.

Time control

The time control will be 90 minutes for 40 moves and 30 minutes until the end of the game, with 30 seconds additional time per move, starting from move 1, per player. The games shall be played using the electronic clocks.


Each teams place in the order of classification shall be decided by the number of match points it has scored. Ties shall be resolved by the procedures in D.II.07, Annex D, paragraph G.



The winning team in the open section of the Chess Olympiad shall receive the "International Hamilton-Russell Cup".

The winning team in the women section of the Chess Olympiad shall receive the "International Vera Menchik Cup".

The winning teams for the best composite scores in the open and women Olympiads shall receive the “Nona Gaprindashvili International Trophy”.

The federation of the respective winning teams shall have custody of the cups, which are property of FIDE, until the following Olympiad.

All trophies are to be competed for at each successive Olympiad; they cannot be acquired in perpetuity.

The dates of the tournament and the name of the winning federation are to be engraved on the base of the Cup. Should the original trophy be lost, a replacement is to be made on the same pattern.

The winning federations of the tournaments, and the names of their players, shall be recorded in the FIDE Golden Book, of which the President has custody.

Chess Medals

Every member of the winning team (players, reserves and captain) shall receive a gold medal. Similarly, the team finishing second shall receive silver medals and the team in third place, bronze.

Special prizes for teams in particular rating categories

Before the start of the tournament, the Technical Administration Panel shall have divided the teams into 5 rating categories, on the basis of their position in the initial overall ranking list (see Annex D, paragraph 4-7); as far as possible, the categories should contain equal numbers of teams.

Every team that finished with the highest score for its category, provided that it has not won medals, shall receive a prize of money or goods.

Individual Chess Medals for Board Prizes

Players assigned to the same board number in their respective team lists shall be in competition for individual board prizes namely: gold, silver and bronze medals. For the purposes of this award, the players performance rating shall be compared. If the performance rating is equal, the tie shall be broken by
(a) the number of games, and if this is also equal by
(b) the players performance rating after deducting the result against the lowest rated opponent, and if this is also equal by
(c) the players performance rating after deducting the results against the two lowest rated opponents and so on.

Only players who have played a minimum of 8 games shall be eligible for board prizes.

Additional prizes

offered by the administrator or by sponsors should be made known to the players in good time, together with the conditions of their award. The FIDE President shall decide how and when such prizes are to be presented.


After the end of the Chess Olympiad, the federation of the teams finishing first, second and the third shall be sent certificates by the President, recording the success of their teams and the medals they have won.

Qualification for the World Team Championship

The three highest-placed teams in the open section and the five highest-placed teams of the women section are entitled to participate in the World Chess Team Championships in the following year.

8. Conclusion of the Chess Olympiad

Final placing

With the aid of the Chief Arbiter, the Tournament Director shall draw up lists of the final placing for the men and women sections, showing the teams in their precise order and giving their final scores.

These lists are to be signed by both organizers and enclosed with the Chief Arbiters concluding report to the FIDE President.

Closing ceremony

The closing ceremony with honours to the winning teams shall be held in the evening on the day of the final round. It should follow the same guidelines as the opening ceremony (where applicable); in addition, the national anthem(s) of the men and women winning teams shall be played. Members of the Presidential Board and the Chief Arbiter shall be seated according to VIP protocol.

Payment of stipends

Before the end of the contest, the administrator shall pay the sums specified in these regulations (as net amounts, after meeting any tax liability). At the option of the participants, he shall pay them in person or arrange for transfer of the sums to their home countries or any other place they choose. For this purpose, the specific principles in D.II.01, paragraph 1.3, shall apply.


As soon as possible the Chief Arbiter and the chairman of the appeals committee shall deliver to the FIDE President an official written report on the course of the contest, with supporting documents if appropriate. Within 4 weeks after the closing ceremony, the chairman of the organizing committee shall present the President with a general report of the proceedings. A copy shall be supplied to the organizing federation.


Immediately after the end of the contest, the FIDE Treasurer shall present the administrator with the account of expenses incurred by FIDE. Not later than 3 months after the closing ceremony, the administrator shall supply an official concluding balance sheet of the operation, which shall give a synopsis of the overall income and expenditure and the administrator net profit.

D.II.02 Olympiad Pairing Rules

Approved by the 1994 and 1998 Executive Councils, amended by the 2006 Presidential Board and the 2007 and 2009 Executive Council.

A. Basic Pairing System


The basic pairing system shall be the Controlled Swiss System Pairings using Match Points for both Pairing and Scoring.

B. Odd Number of Participating Teams


The organizing federation shall be entitled to enter a second team ("B" team). If there is an odd number of participating teams the organizing federation has the right to enter a third team ("C" team).


If the "C" team is paired and plays round 1 it shall remain in the tournament to the conclusion even though a team or teams dropping out or a new team or teams arriving subsequently results in an odd number of teams still in competition.

C. Ranking of Teams for Pairing Purposes


The teams in the open championship are composed by four players, the teams in the women’s championship are composed by four women players. One reserve player may be nominated per team.


Obtain a list of all teams participating and full names of all players of each team, including their board order, one month before the start of the Olympiad. The list of names and the order of the players can be changed only with the approval of the President of FIDE.


Record the FIDE rating of each team member having such a rating.


Assign an arbitrary rating equal to the minimum FIDE rating to team members who have no FIDE rating.


At the start of the championship all the teams are ranked in order of the average of their four highest FIDE-rated players. The team with the highest average rating shall be assigned Pairing Number 1, the second highest, Pairing Number 2, etc.


If two or more teams have the same average rating, they are ranked according to
• the rating of the fifth player
• alphabetically.


For pairing of all rounds the teams are ranked in the following order:

• Match points
• Game points
• Ranking number according to article 9.

D. Number of Rounds


The number of rounds in the Open and the Women`s Olympiad shall be 11.

E. Byes


If there is an odd number of teams a bye should be given to one team which arbitrarily would be credited with 1 match point and two game points.

The team given the bye in the first round would be that team ranked last.

For example: If there are 85 teams, then the team ranked as No. 85 would receive the bye in the first round.

The team given the bye in subsequent rounds would be the last ranked team of the group with the lowest total number of match points.

No team shall receive more than one bye.

F. Scoring unfinished games for pairing purposes


Unfinished games shall be considered as draws for pairing purposes.

G. Tie Breaking


The position of teams that finish with the same number of match points shall be determined by application of the following tie-breaking procedures in sequence, proceeding from (a) to (b) to (c) to the extent required:

a) the sum of Sonneborn-Berger points, which are calculated as follows: match points of each opponent, excluding the opponent who scored the lowest number of match points, multiplied by the number of game points achieved against this opponent;

b) by the number of the game points scored;

c) by the sum of the match points of all the teams opponents, excluding the lowest one.

For tie-break purposes a bye or an unplayed match - if the opponent team does not appear on time – are counted as a drawn match against a virtual opponent. At the start of the round this virtual opponent has the same number of match points and game points as the team present. Then the result of the unplayed match is added (1 matchpoint and 4 gamepoints in case of an unplayed win, 1 matchpoint and 2 gamepoints in case of a bye, 0 matchpoints and 0 gamepoints in case of an unplayed loss) and finally for each subsequent round 1 matchpoint and 2 gamepoints.

H. General Pairing Regulations


A pairing number is assigned to each team as per Section C.


a) No team shall play the same opponent more than once.

b) A team having scored without playing will not receive a bye in subsequent rounds. This is the case when a team has received a bye due to an odd number of teams or when one of the opponent teams did not appear on time.


The difference of the match points of two teams paired against each other should be 0 or, if this is not possible, as small as possible.


A score group is defined as a group of teams having the same number of match points.


Pairings shall be made from the top group down to, but not including, the middle group; then from the bottom group up to, but not including, the middle group, and finally the middle group. The middle group shall be defined as that group in which the median team in the standings is located. If there is an even number of teams being paired, the lower ranked of the two middle teams shall be considered as the median team.

Example: Suppose there are 88 teams:

place match points
43 11 points
44 11 points
Median team -> 45 10 points
46 10 points

Therefore the 10 match point group is the median group.

I. Colour allocation


Team pairings are made without regard of colour.


In the first round the colour assigned to board 1 of the team ranked number 1 shall be selected by lot. All other odd numbered teams in the top half of the pairing group shall receive the same colour in the first round on board 1 as the team ranked number 1.


a) No team's board 1 colour difference will become >+2 or <-2.

b) No team's board 1 will receive the same colour three times in row


a) If in a score group a complete pairing is only possible without applying article 22 such a pairing will then be made.

b) If in a score group including floaters from higher or lower score groups a complete pairing is only possible by choosing another floater, another floater will be chosen.


After the team pairings have been made, colours shall be assigned based on giving priority to:

a) equalisation of colours on board 1 (regardless of who has played or is playing board 1 and regardless of what colours the particular player assigned to board 1 has had), and

b) alternation of colours on board 1.


If both teams have had white the same number of times on board 1 and have had opposite colours on board 1 in the immediately preceding round the colours shall be assigned to board 1 to provide alternation for each team from the colour it had in the previous round.


If both teams have had white the same number of times on board 1 the colours shall be assigned to board 1 to provide the lowest sequence of the same colour for both teams.


If both teams have had white the same number of times on board 1 and have had exactly the same sequence of colours, then priority shall be given to

a) balancing the colour on board 1 of the team with the higher ranked team, or

b) alternation of colour on board 1 of the higher ranked team from the last round.


If both teams have had white the same number of times on board 1 and have had exactly the same sequence of colours, and each team has had the same number of whites and blacks on board 1, then the colour on board 1 of the higher ranked team shall be alternated from the last round.


The teams ranked first in the pairing list will have the white pieces on the odd-numbered boards, the black pieces on the even-numbered boards.

J. Detailed Pairings Procedure


a) If there is an uneven number of teams in a score group above the median group, the lowest ranked team shall be floated down to the score group immediately below and paired against the highest ranked team in that group, which it has not already played.

b) If the score group from which the lowest ranked team has been floated down is such that a complete pairing of all remaining teams in the group cannot be made, then - instead of floating the lowest ranked team - the second lowest ranked team in the group shall be floated down, etc.


If the lowest ranked team floated down to the group immediately below has already played every team in that group, then it shall be moved back to its original group and the second lowest ranked team shall be floated, etc.


If every team in a score above the median group has played every team in the group immediately below, then the lowest ranked team is floated down to next score group and the same procedure is followed as per articles 30 and 31.


a) If there is an uneven number of teams in a score group below the median group, the highest ranked team shall be floated up to the score group immediately above and paired against the lowest ranked team in that group, which it has not already played.

b) If the score group from which the highest ranked team has been floated up is such that a complete pairing of all remaining teams in the group cannot be made, then - instead of floating the highest ranked team - the second highest ranked team in the group shall be floated up, etc.


If the highest ranked team floated up to the group immediately above has already played every team in that group, then it shall be moved back to its original group and the second highest ranked team shall be floated, etc.


If every team in a score below the median group has played every team in the group immediately above, then the highest ranked team is floated up to next score group and the same procedure is followed as per articles 33 and 34.


To the extent possible, teams in the top half of any score group shall be paired in sequence against the teams in the bottom half of the same score group.


For teams in the median group and higher, priority shall be given to find first the correct pairing for the highest ranked team in that score group, etc.


For teams below the median group, priority shall be given to find first the correct pairing for the lowest ranked team in that score group, etc.


Assuming 2N teams in a group, it is first attempted to pair the first team in the group with the N + 1 team. If that is possible, we are left with a subgroup of 2N - 2 teams. The same procedure is now applied to the subgroup. Wherever a match is not possible because the teams have already played each other, or the subgroup is unsolvable, the first team in the group (or subgroup) is matched with N + 2 (instead of N + 1), then N + 3, until 2N, and if still unsuccessful, against N-1, N-2, etc.


In order to illustrate this procedure, suppose there are six teams in a group, 1 through 6. There will be 15 combinations of pairing within the group, in the following descending order of priority:

1 1 x 4 2 x 5 3 x 6
2 1 x 4 2 x 6 3 x 5
3 1 x 4 2 x 3 5 x 6
4 1 x 5 2 x 4 3 x 6
5 1 x 5 2 x 6 3 x 4
6 1 x 5 2 x 3 4 x 6
7 1 x 6 2 x 4 3 x 5
8 1 x 6 2 x 5 3 x 4
9 1 x 6 2 x 3 4 x 5
10 1 x 3 2 x 5 4 x 6
11 1 x 3 2 x 6 4 x 5
12 1 x 3 2 x 4 5 x 6
13 1 x 2 3 x 5 4 x 6
14 1 x 2 3 x 6 4 x 5
15 1 x 2 3 x 4 5 x 6


If any team in a score group has already played against all the other team of the score group it has to be floated down (for all score groups above the median group) or up (for all score groups below the median group).


Priority shall be given to making as many pairings as possible of the teams in a given score group before floating a team to the score group below (or above). In all such cases the same general logic as detailed described above shall be followed.

K. Miscellaneous


The pairings are to be made by the Technical Administration Panel (TAP) as outlined in article 6.3.7 of the Chess Olympiad Regulations.


a) Only those teams who have at least three players present at 19.00 the day before the start of round 1 (and the TAP has been notified of their presence) plus those teams who have given notification of their time of arrival and travel arrangements (and the TAP has been informed) shall be paired for the first round with the added provision that the travel arrangements must be such that the absent team or teams shall be able to be in the tournament room before start of the first round.

b) At the start of any round a participating team has to be present with at least three players. If less than three players are present at the start of any round the players present are not allowed to start their games.

c) If any team the second time (not necessary in two consecutive rounds) will be present with less than three players and therefore not allowed to start their games, then this team will be expelled from the Olympiad.


Those teams who do not show up on time for the start of any round shall lose the match and get zero points. The opponent of such a team will get two (2) match points and one (1) game point for each board where its player showed up on time.


After the team pairings are officially published they shall not be changed, except if article 22 of these regulations has been violated. In case of any change of published team pairings or individual pairings the Chief Arbiter has to inform all team captains concerned. To have enough time for new preparations the start of one or more games may be postponed by the Chief Arbiter, if necessary.


Articles 44 or 45 may be overruled by decision of the FIDE President.


No changes in published pairings are allowed, unless the FIDE President confirms it.


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